M2 Bradley

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M2 Bradley
Decisive Action Rotation 13-04 130218-A-ML570-001.jpg
An M2A3 Bradley during a training exercise at Fort Irwin National Training Center, February 2013.
TypeInfantry fighting vehicle
Place of originUnited States
Service history
In service1981–present
Used bySee Operators
WarsPersian Gulf War
Waco siege
Iraq War
Yemeni Civil War
Syrian Civil War
Specifications
Mass27.6 short tons (25.0 t)
Length21.49 ft (6.55 m)
Width11.82 ft (3.60 m)
Height9.78 ft (2.98 m)
Crew3 (commander, gunner, driver)
Passengers6 (7 in M2A2 ODS/M2A3)

Armor
Main
armament
Secondary
armament
7.62 mm coaxial M240C machine gun (2,200 rounds)
EngineCummins VTA-903T 8-cylinder diesel
600 hp (450 kW)
Power/weight16.18 kW/tonne (21.7 hp/tonne)
SuspensionTorsion bar
Operational
range
300 mi (480 km)
Maximum speed 40 mph (64 km/h); 40 km/h off-road; 7.2 km/h in water

The M2 Bradley, or Bradley IFV, is an American infantry fighting vehicle that is a member of the Bradley Fighting Vehicle family. It is manufactured by BAE Systems Land & Armaments, which was formerly United Defense.

The Bradley is designed for reconnaissance and to transport a squad of infantry, providing them protection from small arms fire, while also providing firepower to both suppress and eliminate most threats to friendly infantry. It is designed to be highly maneuverable and to be fast enough to keep up with heavy armor during an advance. The M2 holds a crew of three: a commander, a gunner, and a driver, as well as six fully equipped soldiers as passengers.

In the year 2000 the total cost of the program was $5,664,100,000 for 1,602 units, giving an average unit cost of $3,166,000, or $5,500,000 per in 2022.[2]

Design[edit]

The Bradley IFV was developed largely in response to the amphibious Soviet BMP family of infantry fighting vehicles, and to serve as both an armored personnel carrier (APC), and a tank-killer. Design began in 1963 and entered production in 1981.[3] One specific design requirement was that it should be as fast as the new M1 Abrams main battle tank so that they could maintain formations while moving, something which the older M113 armored personnel carrier could not do, as it had been designed to complement the older M60 Patton.

Armament[edit]

The Bradley is equipped with the M242 25 mm autocannon as its main weapon. The M242 has a single barrel with an integrated dual-feed mechanism and remote feed selection.[4][unreliable source?] The gun has 300 ready rounds in two ready boxes (one of 70 rounds – usually AP-type rounds, the other of 230 rounds – usually HE-type rounds), with another 600 rounds in storage. The two ready boxes allow a selectable mix of rounds, such as the M791 APDS-T (Armor-Piercing Discarding Sabot (with) Tracer), and M792 HEI-T (High Explosive Incendiary (with) Tracer) rounds. The 25 mm automatic gun is primarily used for clearing bunkers and firing on lightly armored vehicles. While the 25 mm automatic gun is not the weapon of choice for engaging tanks, vehicle commanders, crews, and CALL and Army Infantry Center personnel reported isolated instances in which the 25 mm automatic gun had killed tanks. However, Army Materiel Systems Analysis Activity (AMSAA) officials stated that, on the basis of their assessment of combat vehicles in the Persian Gulf war, for the 25 mm automatic gun to kill a tank, the tank would have to be hit at close range in its more vulnerable areas.[5] Subsequent ammunition developments resulted in the M919 APFSDS-T (Armor-Piercing Fin Stabilized Discarding Sabot with Tracer) round, which contains a finned depleted-uranium penetrator similar in concept to armor-piercing munitions used in modern tanks. The M919 was used in combat during the 2003 invasion of Iraq.

It is also armed with an M240C machine gun mounted coaxially to the M242, with 2,200 rounds of 7.62 mm ammunition. For engaging heavier targets (such as when acting in an anti-tank fashion), the Bradley has a TOW missile system on board, which was changed from the M2A1 model onwards to fire TOW II missiles. M2 infantry Bradleys also have firing ports for a number of M231 Firing Port Weapons or FPWs, providing a button-up firing position to replace the top-side gunners on the old ACAV, though the M231 is rarely employed. Initial variants carried six, but the side ports were plated over with the new armor used on the A2 and A3 variants, leaving only the two rear-facing mounts in the loading ramp.

Countermeasures[edit]

The use of aluminum armor and the storage of large quantities of ammunition in the vehicle initially raised questions about its combat survivability. Spaced laminate belts and high hardness steel skirts have been added to later versions to improve armor protection, although this increased overall weight to 33 tons. However, actual combat operations have not shown the Bradley to be deficient as losses have been few.[citation needed] In friendly fire incidents in Desert Storm, many crew members survived hits that resulted in total losses for lighter USMC LAV-25 vehicles.[citation needed]

All versions are also equipped with two four-barreled smoke grenade launchers on the front of the turret for creating defensive smoke screens, which can also be loaded with chaff and flares.

In December 2018, the army announced it would be installing an Israeli made active protection system the Iron Fist, on M2 Bradleys of one armored brigade as a near-term solution to enhance protection against anti-tank rockets and missiles.[6]

Chassis[edit]

The Bradley has a welded aluminum unit or monocoque structure to which the armor is attached, mostly on the outside. The suspension is by torsion bars and cranks. Six small rubber rimmed, divided road wheels on each side straddle the location flanges sticking up from the tread. These were originally of aluminum, but were changed to steel as vehicle weight increased. The steel treads sit on flat hard rubber tires.

Mobility[edit]

The Bradley is highly capable in cross-country open terrain, in accordance with one of the main design objectives of keeping pace with the M1 Abrams main battle tank. Whereas the M113 would float without much preparation, the Bradley was initially designed to float by deploying a flotation curtain around the vehicle. This caused some drownings due to failures during its first trials. Armor upgrades have negated this capability.

History[edit]

Production history[edit]

Bradley IFV burns after being hit during the Battle of 73 Easting, one of only three Bradleys lost to the Iraqis, February 1991

The M2, which was named after World War II General Omar Bradley, carries a crew of three and a six-man dismountable infantry squad.

The vehicle entered service with the U.S. Army in 1981, and 4,641 M2 variants have been produced since.

Even after the troubled development history of the Bradley,[7] additional problems occurred after production started, as later detailed by Air Force Colonel James G. Burton, who took part in the design and fielding process.[8] Burton advocated the use of comprehensive live fire tests against fully loaded military vehicles to check for survivability.[9] The Army and Navy agreed and established the Joint Live Fire testing program in 1984.[10] When testing the Bradley, disagreements occurred between Burton and the Ballistic Research Laboratory (BRL) at Aberdeen Proving Grounds, which preferred smaller, more controlled, "building block" tests that could be used to improve the databases used to model vehicle survivability, as opposed to full up tests with random shots, which reduce the possibility of bias but produced little useful statistical data.[10] In addition, Burton insisted on a series of “overmatch" tests in which weapon systems would be fired at the Bradley that were known to be able to easily penetrate its armor.[9] Burton saw attempts to avoid such tests as dishonest, while the BRL saw them as wasteful as they already knew the vehicle would fail.[10] The disagreements became so contentious that a Congressional inquiry was set up.[11] As a result of the tests, additional improvements to vehicle survivability were added.[12]

Combat history[edit]

During the Persian Gulf War, M2 Bradleys destroyed more Iraqi armored vehicles than the M1 Abrams.[13] Twenty Bradleys were lost—three by enemy fire and 17 due to friendly fire incidents; another 12 were damaged. The gunner of one Bradley was killed when his vehicle was hit by Iraqi fire, possibly from an Iraqi BMP-1, during the Battle of 73 Easting.[14] To remedy some problems that were identified as contributing factors in the friendly fire incidents, infrared identification panels and other marking/identification measures were added to the Bradleys.[citation needed]

In the Iraq War, the Bradley proved somewhat vulnerable to improvised explosive device (IED) and rocket-propelled grenade (RPG) attacks, but casualties were light—the doctrine being to allow the crew to escape at the expense of the vehicle. As of early 2006, total combat losses included between 55 and 100 Bradleys.[15][16] By 2007, the Army had stopped using the M2 Bradley in combat, instead favoring more survivable "MRAP" (Mine-Resistant Ambush Protected) vehicles.[17] By the end of the war, about 150 Bradleys had been destroyed (Unreliable Source).[18][unreliable source?]

The M2A3 variant began to replace the M3A3 cavalry fighting vehicles in US Army armoured reconnaissance units in 2014, as the increased ammunition of the loads carried by the M3A3s reduced the number of scouts able to be dismounted. Further, in 2016, a reorganisation of reconnaissance unit structures and compositions saw large-scale replacements of Humvees within these units with M2A3s, increasing the tactical mobility and manoeuvre warfare capabilities of US Army armoured reconnaissance brigades.[19][20]

Replacement[edit]

U.S. Army efforts to replace the Bradley began in the mid-1980s under the Armored Systems Modernization program. The Army studied creating several vehicle variants under a common heavy chassis to replace main battle tanks and Bradleys. This effort was canceled in 1992 due to the collapse of the Soviet Union.[21]

The U.S. Army began the Future Combat Systems (FCS) Manned Ground Vehicles program in 1999. This family of 18-ton lightweight tracked vehicles centered around a common chassis. It would consist of eight variants, including infantry carriers, scouting vehicles and main battle tanks. FCS was canceled in 2009 due to budget cuts.

The U.S. Army first intended to replace the Bradley as part of the Future Combat Systems Manned Ground Vehicles program, which started in 1999 and was cancelled in 2009.

In 2010, the Army began the Ground Combat Vehicle program to replace the M2 Bradley with the GCV Infantry Fighting Vehicle. Entries from BAE and General Dynamics were selected for evaluation. Concerns grew around the vehicle's proposed weight of around 70 tons.[22] GCV was cancelled in 2014 due to sequestration budget cuts.

The Army conducts tests of an Advanced Running Gear using a Bradley Fighting Vehicle as a surrogate for the OMFV

In June 2018, the Army established the Next Generation Combat Vehicle (NGCV) program to replace the M2 Bradley. In October 2018, the program was re-designated as the Optionally Manned Fighting Vehicle (OMFV).[23] This program placed much of the cost burden of development on contractors, causing many competitors to drop out. In February 2020, the Army restarted the program, promising to take on more responsibility for funding.[24]

Variants[edit]

M2[edit]

M2 Bradley configured for swimming, Fort Benning, June 1983

The M2 was the basic production model, first fielded in 1981. The M2 can be identified by its standard TOW missile system, steel laminate armor, and 600 horsepower (450 kW) Cummins VT903 engine with HMPT-500 Hydro-mechanical transmission. Basic features also included an integrated sight unit for the M242 25 mm gun, and thermal imaging system. The M2 was amphibious with the use of a "swim barrier" or "flotation screen" and was transportable by C-141 Starlifter and C-5 Galaxy aircraft. All M2 vehicles have been upgraded to improved standards. The M2 armor protects the vehicle through a full 360 degrees against 14.5 mm armor-piercing incendiary (API) ammunition.

The turret was offset to the right to maximize the room in the passenger compartment. Six infantry soldiers for dismounted fighting were held in the passenger compartment. Vision for the troops was provided through three periscopes placed between the rear ramp and the cargo hatch just behind the turret, as well as two periscopes on each side of the hull above the side firing ports. The passenger compartment also held up to five TOW or Dragon missile reloads. The side and rear hull armor consisted of two 0.25 in (6.4 mm) steel plates one inch apart and 3.5 in (89 mm) away from the aluminum armor. The hull top, bottom, and front consisted of 5083 aluminum armor, and 0.357 in (9.1 mm) steel armor was added to the front third of the hull bottom to increase mine protection.[25]

M3[edit]

The M3 Bradley CFV is very similar to the M2 Bradley IFV (Infantry Fighting Vehicle) and is fielded with the same two-man 25mm Bushmaster Cannon turret with the coaxial 7.62mm machine gun. It only varies from the M2 in a few subtle ways and by role. The M3 is classified as an armored reconnaissance and scout vehicle and does away with the firing ports found in the M2 series. The M3 also carries more TOW missiles as well as more ammunition for its 25mm and 7.62mm guns.

M2A1[edit]

Introduced in 1986, the A1 variant included an improved TOW II missile system, a Gas Particulate Filter Units (GPFU) NBC system, and a fire-suppression system. By 1992, the M2A1s had begun being remanufactured to upgraded standards. The GPFU system was only connected to the vehicle commander, driver, and gunner, while the infantry squad had to use their own from MOPP suits. A seventh infantryman was also added just behind the center of the turret.[25]

U.S. Army soldiers head out on a mission in their M2A2 ODS, seen here fitted with explosive reactive armor boxes, Iraq, October 2004

M2A2[edit]

Introduced in 1988, the A2 received an improved 600 horsepower (447 kW) engine with an HMPT-500-3 Hydromechanical transmission and improved armor (both passive and the ability to mount explosive reactive armor). The new armor protects the Bradley against 30 mm APDS rounds and RPGs (or similar anti-armor weapons). The new armor also eliminated the trim vane that made the Bradley amphibious and covered up the side firing ports. Spaced laminate armor was installed to the hull rear and spaced laminate track skirts protected the lower hull. A semicircular shield was attached to the turret rear to add more stowage space as well as act as spaced armor. Kevlar spall liners were added to critical areas. The troop carrying number was reduced to six, eliminating the periscope position behind the driver. After live firing testing, the seating and stowage arrangements were redrawn. These upgrades raised the cumulative gross weight of the vehicle to 30,519 kg (67,282 lb (30.037 long tons; 33.641 short tons)).[citation needed] The M2A2 was qualified to be transported by the C-17 Globemaster III. M2A2s were all eventually modified to M2A2 ODS or M2A3 standard.

U.S. Army M2A2 at the National Training Center, Fort Irwin.

[25]

M2A2 ODS/ODS-E[edit]

The "Operation Desert Storm" and "Operation Desert Storm-Engineer" improvements were based on lessons learned during the first Gulf War in 1991. The major improvements included an eye-safe laser rangefinder (ELRF), a tactical navigation system (TACNAV) incorporating the Precision Lightweight GPS Receiver (PLGR) and the Digital Compass Systems (DCS), a missile countermeasure device designed to defeat first-generation wire-guided missiles, and the Force XXI Battle Command Brigade and Below (FBCB2) Battlefield Command Information System. The internal stowage was further improved and a thermal imaging system was added for the driver. The infantry squad was again increased to seven men, six of whom sat facing each other on two 3-man benches in the passenger compartment, with the seventh back in the position behind the turret. An MRE ('Meal, Ready-to-Eat') heater was added to the vehicle to assist in the preparation of food while in the field or warzone. With the retirement of the Dragon missile, the vehicle had the option of carrying some Javelin anti-tank missiles.[25]

M2A3[edit]

M2A3 Bradley operating near Fallujah, Iraq, in November 2004. The main recognition feature of the M2/M3A3 is the Commander's Independent Viewer (CIV), at the right rear of the turret.

Introduced in 2000, the A3 upgrades make the Bradley IFV totally digital, with upgraded or improved existing electronics systems throughout improving target acquisition and fire control, navigation, and situational awareness. Also, the survivability of the vehicle is upgraded with a series of armor improvements, again both passive and reactive, as well as improved fire-suppression systems and NBC equipment.[26]

Three M2A3 Bradleys exit an OCCD at the start of a Patrol at Fort Irwin, California.

The A3 Bradley incorporates the Improved Bradley Acquisition Subsystem (IBAS) and the Commander's Independent Viewer (CIV). Both include a second-generation forward looking infrared (FLIR) and an electro-optical/TV imaging system, and the IBAS also has direct-view optics (DVO) and the eye-safe laser rangefinder (ELRF).[27] The CIV allows the commander to scan for targets and maintain situational awareness while remaining under armor and without interfering with the gunner's acquisition and engagement of targets.[28]

A pair of M2A3 Bradleys firing their M242 chain guns in a live fire exercise.

The A3's fire control software (FCSW) combines laser range, environmental readings, ammunition type, and turret control inputs to automatically elevate the gun for range and to automatically generate a kinematic lead solution if a target is moving.[27] This functionality, very similar to that of the M1A2 Abrams, allows the gunner or commander to center the reticule on a moving target, lase the target, and achieve a first-round-hit, without the need to fire sensing rounds and adjust aim.[28][29] The FCSW incorporates a thermal aided target tracker (ATT) function that can track two targets in the FLIR field of view and switch between them, primarily intended for employing TOW missiles against moving vehicles.[29] The FCSW also allows the turret and gunner's sights to be slewed automatically onto a target that has been designated with the CIV.[28]

The A3 Bradley uses a position-navigation subsystem that incorporates a global positioning system (GPS), an inertial navigation unit (INU), and a vehicle motion sensor (MVS),[27] which, in addition to allowing accurate own-vehicle navigation, allows accurate position reporting and hand-off of designated targets to other units via FBCB2.[29]

The Commander's Tactical Display (CTD) presents information from FBCB2 and the vehicle navigation systems on a moving-map display, allows the commander to communicate via text over FBCB2, and allows him to check vehicle built-in test (BIT) information and access various other information.[29] The Squad Leader's Display (SLD) in the infantry compartment improves the situational awareness of the passengers by allowing them to view navigational information from FBCB2 and imagery from the IBAS, CIV, or Driver's Vision Enhancer (DVE) to familiarize themselves with their surroundings prior to dismounting.[27]

The M2A3 Bradley II, and an M2A3 Bradley variant used in Iraq, were included in the GCV Analysis of Alternatives.[30]

M2A4[edit]

After the Iraq War, the army began researching engineering change proposals (ECPs) for the M2 Bradley to restore space, weight, power, and cooling capacity reduced by the addition of armor and electronics hastily added during combat. ECP1 will work to restore mobility and allow the vehicle to handle more weight. As weight increased, the Bradley got lower on its suspension, which reduced ground clearance. This decreased mobility on rough terrain and left it more vulnerable to IEDs. The effort will install lighter tracks, shock absorbers, a new suspension support system, and heavy weight torsion bars. ECP2 will restore automotive power with a larger engine, a new transmission, and a smart-power management system for better electrical power distribution to accept future networked tactical radio and battle command systems.[31][32] The first Bradleys upgraded with ECP1 were fielded in mid-2015, and the first to be upgraded with ECP2 will begin fielding in 2018.[33] Vehicles that receive both the ECP1 and ECP2 upgrade will be designated A4.[34]

On June 14, 2018, BAE Systems Land and Armaments was awarded a contract to produce up to 164 M2A4 and M7A4 Bradley Fighting Vehicles using existing M2A3, M7A3 and M2A2 ODS-SA Bradleys.[35] The M2A4 is equipped with an enhanced drivetrain, more powerful engine, new digitized electronics, a new fire suppression system, and a new IED jammer.[36]

The first M2A4 models were fielded in April 2022.[37]

Mission Enabler Technologies-Demonstrator[edit]

The MET-D is an experimental variant of the M2 Bradley which prototypes the use of surrogate robotic combat vehicles (RCVs) that are operated by the crew of the MET-D. It is equipped with a remote turret for the main 25 mm chain gun, 360-degree situational awareness cameras and enhanced crew stations with touchscreens.[38][39]

Other uses of the Bradley chassis[edit]

The Bradley series has been widely modified. Its chassis is the basis for the M270 Multiple Launch Rocket System, the M4 C2V battlefield command post, and the M6 Bradley Linebacker air defense vehicle. Armed with a quad Stinger surface-to-air missile launcher in place of the TOW anti-tank missiles, but maintaining the 25 mm autocannon, the M6 Bradley Linebacker Air Defense Vehicle (no longer in service) possessed a unique role in the U.S. Army, providing highly mobile air defense at the front line.

The Bradley's suspension system has also been used on upgraded versions of the U.S. Marines' Assault Amphibious Vehicle.

Table of variants[edit]

M2 and M2A1[40] M2A2 and M2A2 RESTOW[41] M2A2 ODS and M2A3[42]
Overall length 254 in (6.5 m) 258 in (6.6 m)
Overall width 126 in (3.2 m) 129 in (3.3 m) (w/o armor kit)
Height over commander's hatch 117 in (3.0 m)
Ground clearance 18 in (45.7 cm)
Top speed 41 mph (66 km/h) 35 mph (56 km/h)
Fording Floats
Max. grade 60%
Max. trench 8.3 ft (2.5 m) 7 ft (2.1 m)
Max. wall 36 in (0.9 m) 30 in (0.8 m)
Range 300 mi (480 km) 250 mi (400 km)
Power 500 hp (370 kW) at 2600 rpm 600 hp (450 kW) at 2600 rpm
Power-to-weight ratio 19.9 hp/ST (16.4 kW/t) 20 hp/ST (16.4 kW/t) (w/o armor kit) 19.7 hp/ST (16.2 kW/t) (w/o armor kit)
Torque 1,025 lb⋅ft (1,390 N⋅m) at 2350 rpm 1,225 lb⋅ft (1,660 N⋅m) at 2300 rpm
Weight, combat loaded 50,200 lb (22,770 kg) 60,000 lb (27,220 kg) 61,000 lb (27,670 kg)
Ground pressure 7.8 psi (54 kPa) 9.3 psi (64 kPa)(w/o armor kit) 9.4 psi (65 kPa)
Main armament 25 mm M242 Bushmaster chain gun
BGM-71 TOW anti-tank missile
Elevation, main gun +59° −9°, M2
+57° −9°, M2A1
+57° −9°
Traverse rate 6 seconds/360°
Elevation rate 60°/second
Main gun ammo 900 rounds,
5 TOW or Dragon missiles + 2 in launcher
900 rounds,
5 TOW 2 or Dragon missiles + 2 in launcher
900 rounds,
5 missiles (incl. TOW 2 & up to 2 Javelin) + 2 in launcher
Firing rate single shot, 100, 200 rounds per minute

Operators[edit]

Map with Bradley operators in blue

Future operators[edit]

  •  Croatia: 89 units in M2A2 ODS variant costing $196.4 million [44]

Potential operators[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "M2/M3 Bradley Fighting Vehicles > Armoured : Armed Forces International". Archived from the original on 2010-09-22. Retrieved 2011-03-03.
  2. ^ "M2A3 and M3A3 Bradley Fighting Vehicle Systems (BFVS)". Federation of American Scientists. Archived from the original on 2010-04-21.
  3. ^ "How Bradley Fighting Vehicles Work". HowStuffWorks. September 4, 2004.
  4. ^ a b c Bradley M2 / M3 Tracked Armoured Fighting Vehicles, USA. Archived 2008-06-01 at the Wayback Machine Army-Technology.com. Retrieved on August 1, 2008.
  5. ^ "GAO report OPERATION DESERT STORM Early Performance Assessment of Bradley and Abrams" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2014-02-24.
  6. ^ Army Bradley Brigade Will Get Israeli Anti-Missile System: Iron Fist. Breaking Defense. 14 December 2018.
  7. ^ Diane L. Urbina. "Lethal beyond all expectations: The Bradley Fighting Vehicle"—in chapter 12 of George F. Hofmann and Donn A. Starry (editors) Camp Colt to Desert Storm: The History of U.S. Armored Forces, Lexington, Kentucky; The University Press of Kentucky, ISBN 0-8131-2130-2.
  8. ^ James G. Burton, Col. The Pentagon Wars: Reformers Challenge the Old Guard, Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press (1993). ISBN 1-55750-081-9.
  9. ^ a b Mohr, Charles (April 18, 1986). "Tests of Bradley Armored Fighting Vehicle Criticized". The New York Times. New York, NY. p. A20.
  10. ^ a b c Haworth, W. Blair (1999). The Bradley and How It Got That Way: Technology, Institutions, and the Problem of Mechanized Infantry in the United States Army. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press. ISBN 0-313-30974-4.
  11. ^ MacPherson, Myra (May 8, 1986). "The Man Who Made War On a Weapon". The Washington Post. Washington, DC.
  12. ^ Wade, James P. Jr. (September 28, 1984). "Memorandum for Assistant Secretary of the Army (RD&A): Joint Live Fire Test Anti-Armor Phase". Hearings Before The Investigations Subcommittee of the Committee on Armed Services. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office. p. 71 – via Google Books.
  13. ^ "M2 and M3 Bradley Fighting Vehicle Systems (BFVS)". Archived from the original on 2010-02-16. Retrieved 2010-07-25.. Global Security
  14. ^ Quotation from General accounting office's report about the Bradleys and Abrams performance in the Persian Gulf War: "According to information provided by the Army's Office of the Deputy Chief of Staff for Operations and Plans, 20 Bradleys were destroyed during the Persian Gulf war. Another 12 Bradleys were damaged, but four of these were quickly repaired. Friendly fire accounted for 17 of the destroyed Bradleys and three of the damaged ones."
  15. ^ L.B. Thompson, L.J. Korb, C.P. Wadhams. Army Equipment After Iraq Archived 2009-03-27 at the Wayback Machine. Lexington Institute and Center for American Progress.
  16. ^ "SABER RPG Report August 2008" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on April 9, 2016.
  17. ^ A Quiet Farewell For the M-2 Bradley Archived 2012-07-07 at the Wayback Machine - Strategypage.com, March 5, 2012
  18. ^ The US Army's armoured vehicle conundrum Archived 2014-10-04 at the Wayback Machine - Army-Technology.com, 11 September 2014
  19. ^ U.S. Army's New Armored Recon | Structure & Equipment. Retrieved 2021-05-25 – via YouTube.
  20. ^ Lowry, Anthony E.; Rose II, Peter W. "From the Screen Line: Cavalry Scouts in the Army of 2020". www.benning.army.mil. Retrieved 2021-05-25.
  21. ^ Schafer, Susanne M. (9 October 1992). "Army drops contracts for armored vehicles". Austin American-Statesman. Associated Press. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  22. ^ Freedberg, Sydney J. (27 November 2013). "BAE, GD: We Can Cut Weight From Army's GCV". Breaking Defense. Retrieved 21 January 2022.
  23. ^ Tressel, Ashley (12 October 2018). "MPF, AMPV now part of NGCV family of vehicles". Inside Defense. Retrieved 21 January 2022.
  24. ^ Tressel, Ashley (7 February 2020). "Army reopens competition for Bradley replacement". Inside Defense. Retrieved 21 January 2022.
  25. ^ a b c d M2 Variants Archived 2012-12-26 at the Wayback Machine - AFVDB.com
  26. ^ NBC also stands for nuclear, biological, chemical
  27. ^ a b c d Field Manual 3-22.1, Bradley Gunnery (Nov 2003). Headquarters, Department of the Army.
  28. ^ a b c Hans Halberstadt (2001). Europa Militaria No 30: Bradley Company. Ramsbury, Marlborough, Wiltshire: The Crowood Press Ltd. ISBN 1-86126-425-9.
  29. ^ a b c d Michael Green & James D. Brown (2007). M2/M3 Bradley at War. St. Paul, MN: Zenith Press. ISBN 978-0-7603-2523-0.
  30. ^ "Army Evaluated Nine Vehicles Against GCV In Analysis Of Alternatives". Inside Washington Publisher. January 2010. Archived from the original on 28 September 2010. Retrieved 12 January 2011.
  31. ^ Army Develops New Concepts, Keeps Existing Fleets Rolling - Defensenews.com, 12 October 2014
  32. ^ Upgrades 'new normal' for armor in uncertain budget environment Archived 2014-10-24 at the Wayback Machine - Army.mil, 20 October 2014
  33. ^ Army Begins Massive Makeover of Combat Vehicle Fleet[permanent dead link] - Nationaldefensemagazine.org, 6 May 2015
  34. ^ "Here's The Army's Plan For A Larger And More Deadly Bradley Fighting Vehicle". The Drive. 29 January 2018. Retrieved 21 July 2018.
  35. ^ "BAE lands $347 million US Army contract to produce upgraded Bradley Fighting Vehicles". The Defense Post. 15 June 2018. Retrieved 21 July 2018.
  36. ^ BAE Systems continues to deliver upgraded variant M2 A4 Bradley tracked armored IFV to US Army. Army Recognition. 6 June 2020.
  37. ^ "US Army equips its first armored unit with modernized M2A4 Bradley tracked IFVs | Defense News April 2022 Global Security army industry | Defense Security global news industry army year 2022 | Archive News year".
  38. ^ "Soldiers to operate armed robotic vehicles from upgraded Bradleys". www.army.mil.
  39. ^ Vietnam-Vintage Vehicles Blaze Trail For Robot Tanks: Army RCV Archived 3 September 2018 at the Wayback Machine. Breaking Defense. 30 August 2018.
  40. ^ Hunnicutt 1999, p. 448.
  41. ^ Hunnicutt 1999, p. 450.
  42. ^ Hunnicutt 1999, p. 452.
  43. ^ "US Delivers Bradley Fighting Vehicles to the Lebanese Army". U.S. Embassy in Lebanon. 14 August 2017. Archived from the original on 16 August 2017. Retrieved 15 August 2018. We are here at the Port of Beirut to mark the delivery of eight M2A2 Bradley Fighting Vehicles. These are the very first of a total shipment of 32 Bradleys that will be delivered in the coming months.
  44. ^ "Plenković o nabavi Bradleya: Manje ćemo platiti, a imat ćemo više potpuno opremljenih vozila".
  45. ^ "Κοσμογονία στον Ελληνικό Στρατό: Ερχονται ελικόπτερα OH-58D Kiowa Warrior, ΤΟΜΑ M2 Bradley & Hellfire AGM-114L! | Pronews". Archived from the original on 2017-07-03. Retrieved 2017-07-03.

Sources[edit]

  • Hunnicutt, R. P. (1999). Bradley: A History of American Fighting and Support Vehicles. Presidio Press. ISBN 9780891416944.

External links[edit]